Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful method to directly visualise the localisation of genomic alterations in the nucleus. The technique has been adapted to a wide range of applications in both medicine, especially diagnostic cytogenetics, and biology. Topics described in this manual include:
FISH on native human tissues, such as blood, bone marrow, epithelial cells, hair root cells, amniotic fluid cells, human sperm cells; FISH on archival human tissues, e.g. formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections, cryofixed tissue; simultaneous detection of apoptosis and expression of apoptosis-related genes; comparative genomic hybridization; special FISH techniques (Fiber-, PNA-, CO-, NU- and DBD-FISH); FISH on insect cells and yeast; multi-color FISH applications (spectral karyotyping analysis, reverse FISH and FICTION); FISH-related techniques, such as PRINS and microarrays.