This book contains contributions that on the one hand represent modern developments in the area of mathematical morphology, and on the other hand may be of particular interest to an audience of (theoretical) computer scientists. The introductory chapter summarizes some basic notions and concepts of mathematical morphology. In this chapter, a novice reader learns, among other things, that complete lattice theory is generally accepted as the appropriate algebraic framework for mathematical morphology. In the following chapter it is explained that, for a number of cases, the complete lattice framework is too limited, and that one should, instead, work on (complete) inf-semilattices. Other chapters discuss granulometries, analytical aspects of mathematical morphology, and the geometric character of mathematical morphology. Also, connectivity, the watershed transform and a formal language for morphological transformations are being discussed. This book has many interesting things to offer to researches in computer science, mathematics, physics, electrical engineering and other disciplines.