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PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BIOLOGY BY LANCELOT HOGBEN, F. R. S. MASON PROFESSOR OF ZOOLOGY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF BIRMINGHAM, FORMERLY RFGIUS PROFESSOR OF NATURAL HISTORY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN, RESEARCH PROFESSOR OF SOCIAL BIOLOGY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON, AND PROFESSOR OF ZOOLOGY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAPE TOWN SECOND EDITION revised and with new illustrations throughout by J. F. HORRABIN LONDON GEORGE ALLEN UNWIN LTD MUSEUM STREET TWO EXTREMES OF COLOUR CHANGE IN THE COMMON FROG Showing the influence of pituitary hormone on colour-change in frogs. Left Control specimen, in dry, light surroundings. Right Specimen kept in the same surroundings, but injected with extract of ox-pituitary posterior lobe. See Chapter VI. First published in 1930 by Christophers, Ltdi COMPLETELY REVISED SECOND EDITION IQ4O REPRINTED IQ42 REPRINTED IQ45 COMPLETE CONFORMITY WITH THE AUTHORIZED ECONOMY STANDARDS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN in n-Point Imprint Type BY UNWIN BROTHERS LIMITED WOKING PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BIOLOGY was pub-- lished first in 1930. It was based on the plan of elemen tary instruction adopted in the University of Cape Town during the authors tenure of the chair of zoology. Its object was not then, and is not now, to supplant the many excellent dissecting manuals available for use in the labora tory. It aims at supplementing laboratory work with a general introduction based on evolutionary principles with emphasis on function throughout. While the original plan remains, each chapter has been extensively revised or, where necessary, entirely rewritten. The chapter in which the Vertebrate skeleton is used to illustrate the principles of geologicalsuccession by reference to the fossil record has been recast to take advantage of the many new discoveries which have been made during the past ten years. The author is greatly indebted to Dr. Westoll, Lecturer in Palaeontology in the University of Aberdeen, for advice and information, especially with reference to the design of new illustrations. All the illustrations in the previous edition have been redrawn by Mr. Horrabin, and many new ones have been added or substituted. To help students to practise methodical methods of memorizing essential facts new tabular matter has been introduced in various places. Dr. H. Waring who saw the new edition through the press is responsible for many valuable suggestions. THE UNIVERSITY LANCELOT HOGBEN ABERDEEN Nov. 1939 CONTENTS PART I The Vertebrate Body as a Going Concern CHAPTER PAGE I. LIVING MATTER AND REPRODUCTION 15 II. THE MACHINERY OF RESPONSE 45 III. THE MACHINERY OF CO-ORDINATION 73 IV. THE SOURCES OF ENERGY OF THE ANIMAL BODY 98 V. DIGESTION, RESPIRATION AND EXCRETION 114 VI. THE TRANSPORT OF MATERIALS IN THE ANIMAL BODY 129 VII. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW ORGANISM 155 VIII. THE MACHINERY OF INHERITANCE 1 86 PART II How Animals Differ IX. THE DIVERSITY OF ANIMAL LIFE 345 X. THE PRINCIPLE OF UNITY OF TYPE 371 XI. UNITY OF TYPE AMONG INVERTEBRATES 291 XII. THE PRINCIPLE OF SUCCESSION WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE VERTEBRATE SKELETON 331 XIII. EVOLUTIONARY THEORY TO-DAY 367 APPENDIX I. CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA 389 APPENDIX II. KEYS TO THE ORDERS OF INSECTS 394 APPENDIX III. SERIAL HOMOLOGY 400 APPENDIX IV. PARTS OF THE BRAIN 403 INDEX 405 ILLUSTRATIONS Two Extremes of Colour Change in the Common Frog Frontispiece FIG. PAGE 1. Set-up ofExperiment to show the Dependence of the Heart-beat on Metallic Ions 16 2. Paramcecium Dividing 23 3. Reproductive and Associated Organs of the Frog 24 4. Fertilization in the Starfish 25 5. Human Egg and Sperm 26 6. Spermatozoa of Different Animals 27 7. Stages in the Development of the Frogs Egg 28 8. Cellular Structure of the Animal Body 29 9. The Cellular Structure of the Testis 31 10. Immature Ova of Different Vertebrate Types 33 11. Early Stages in the Segmentation of the Egg of the Sea Urchin, Sturgeon and Fowl 36 12...
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