HIS LIFE AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY BY LEWIS R. HARLEY, PH.D. Ncln mk THE COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY PRESS THE MACMILLAN COMFA4hT, AGENTS 66 R ATENUB H 1899 FRANCIS LIEBER HIS LIFE, TIMES, AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY COPYRIGIIT, 1899, BY THE hIACMILLAh COh.lIaANY. Noctnuab 13rtes J. S. Cushing 81 Co. - Berwick rt Smith Numuud filasr. U.S.A. TO MY FORhIEK TEACITER JOHN BACH McMASTER, L1n.D. is ZTaIume is Znac.rihcb PREFACE THIS volume is the result of studies in history and politics in the University of Pennsylvania, where those portions of the work relating to political philosophy were read in the seminary conducted by Dr. Edmund J. James. The author subsequently decided to prepare a biography of Lieber, and thus present in a single volume the story of his life and an exposition of his political writings. The subject is an interesting one, beginning with that exciting period of Gcrrnan history when the gymnasia and the universities developed a new type of mahood that insisted on national unity and constitutional government. After tracing the career of Licber through many vicissitudes, it is a labor of great profit to study his life and writings in a new sphere of activity in the United States. No one can examine his works without being impressed with the personality of the man. He was fond of looking a at the moral side of political life. No Right without its Duties, no Duty without its Rights, was his favoi-ite motto, and this lofty sentiment pervades all his books. His aptitude for historical studies enabled him to look at the progress of the nations with n true perspective, rii . v111 PREFACE thus rendering his advice of great value. He had a marked influence on the thinking of men who grew upin the middle of this century, and at the present day it would be well for the young citizen to read care- fully his great treatises on the state. Menzel claims that Germany has derived no benefit from the emigration of her sons but Lieber enrichcd thc fatherland, as well as America, with his great pro- ductions on civil liberty. His influence as an educator led to a deeper respect in this country for German cul- ture, ard thus Germany has been well repaid for her contributiors to our civilization. In the preparation of this work the author has re- ceived valuable assistance from Hon. Andrew D. White, I thaca, N.Y., Hon. M. Russell T hayer, PhiIadelphia, J udge-Advocate General G. Norman Lieber, Washing- ton, D.C., Professor Edmund J. James, University of Chicago, Profcssor Albert H. Smyth, Central High School, Philadelphia, and Professor J. H. Van Ainringe, Columbia University. CENTRAL HICII SCIIOW PIIILAELPHIA, April, 25, 18. LEWIS R. 1IARLEY. CONTENTS I Early Life - School Days - The Waterloo Campaign - Imprisonment - Flight to Greece . . . . . I Life in Rome - Niebuhr - Return to Prussia - Departure for England 33 Liebers Arrival in America - Eight Years of Stnggle- Professorship in South Carolina College . . . 51 IV His Southern Exile- Longing for the North - Visits Europe - His Resignation . . . . . . 70 The Call io Columbia College in the City of New York-Life in the North . . . . 8 2 Liebers Views on Education- His Position as a Teacher . . . roo Political. Philosophy Political Ethics -Legal and Political Herme- neutics - Civil Liberty - Penal Law - The Pardoning Power - Our Constitution . . . . . . 117 ix PAGE X CONTENTS VIII Political Philosophy Continued International Law -Military Law Lieber as an American- Opinion of England, Germany, and France- His Attitude on Partisan Questions . . . Range of his Studies - Methods of Work - Extensive Correspondence Religious Views - Personal Character . . . X XI
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