EUROPE FROM WATERLOO TO SARAJEVO A SKETCH OF POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT BY PERCY ASHLEY, C. B. WITH A SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER BY HARRY ELMER BARNES NEW YORK ALFRED A - KNOPF MCMXXVI I I I I I I I I I J II I It 1 111 11 I i it I. I I t I LJ LJJLJLU COPYKIGHT, 19263 BY AiLFBED A. KNOPF, INC. 4- a. i IN THE 0KITED STATES OI 1 AMERICA PREFACE THE hundred years which began with the assembling of the Congress of Vienna were inaugurated by an attempt to create a Concert of Europe they witnessed the realisation, . in large measure, though not completely, of the nationalist aspirations of the disunited and subject races of Europe, the steady growth of democracy and representative institu tions, a broad widening of popular education, an unparalleled development of industry and trade and a revolution in the means of transport, with the ever-increasing economic inter dependence of the nationSj and a widening range of inter national co-operation and they ended in the most far reaching and most disastrous war the world has seen. The decisive period in the history of Europe during those hundred years was the decade from 1861 to 1871 thereafter national ism largely changed its character, industrial and commercial rivalry became the chief manifestation of national ambitions and spread throughout the world, and racialism began to manifest itself. In the first half of the century statesmen could call into being, or at least could guide, forces whereby the map of Europe in 1815 was greatly changed in the second half of the century, and especially in its last five-and twenty years, they were driven by forces which they had not evoked and could do little to direct or restrain. The present work is an attempt tosketch this movement of a hundred years and having regard to its purpose and narrow compass much detail has necessarily been omitted, and some develop ments of great interest in themselves have been touched upon only very lightly or altogether left aside. The Book has already been published in England under vi Preface another title. In the present American Edition, a number of corrections typographical and other have been made and some phrases modified and I desire to express my in debtedness to Professor Langer 3 of Clark University, in this matter. The Publishers of this American Edition have thought it desirable that the original work should be enlarged by the addition of a chapter on the immediate causes of the World War of 1914-1918. That chapter is by Professor Harry Elmer Barnes, who is solely responsible for the statements made and the opinions expressed therein. Differences of opinion between historians are probably always unavoidable, and their likelihood is increased with the nearness of the events related to the writers 5 own times. In the present case it is necessary to say that the writer of the original work dissociates himself completely from, and in some cases disagrees entirely with, the conclusions set out by Professor Barnes conclusions, both as to facts and as to their inter pretation, which seem to him to attach exaggerated imp or- tance to incidents and personalities the influence of which was only superficial. It is unfortunately especially neces sary to emphasise this disagreement as regards Professor Barness presentation of British policy which appears to be based in important particulars on an incomplete appreci ation of the facts and their true significance, PjBttCY London, July, 1925, CONTENTS L THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA AND THE EUBOPE OF 1815 3 II. THE CONCERT OF EUROPE 25 1. The Personages 25 2. The Period of Congresses 30 3. The Policy of Canning 39 4. The Failure of 1830 50 III. THE PERIOD OF GRADUAL. CHANGE 55 I. France and the Monarchy of July 55 2. Mazzini and Italy 56 3. The German Confederation 61 4. The Austrian Empire Hungarian Nation alism 64 5. The Polish Problem 68 6. Switzerland the Struggle for Constitutional Reform 73 7. The United Kingdom and Sir Eobert Peel 75 8...
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