Guidance and Counselling is very important part of activity in educational institutions all over the world, but in India literature on this subject is very scanty. In the present book, Guidance and Counselling in India, an attempt has been made to fulfil this need in the wake of changing pattern of socio-economic, socio-educational and socio-cultural systems which are forming complex shape owing to advancement in science and technology and changing nature of human behaviour and a person s adjustment with his family, community and society. After classifying the concept of Guidance, the book studies its relationship with educational specialities, its areas, its types such as self-guidance and guidance to other individuals. It proceeds to discuss Professional Counselling and explains counselling of individuals and in groups. It examines counselling for Vocational Development and leisure time guidance. The subjects discussed in the book include : Guidance Services in India, Student Counselling, Group Guidance, Collection, Filing and Dissemination of Occupational Information, Psychological Aspects of Vocation, Vocationalisation, Vocational Guidance, The World of Work and Occupations, Institutions of Higher Learning and the World of Work, Job Analysis, Educational Guidance, Pupil Personnel Work in Indian Schools, New Pattern of Education and Guidance Services, Guidance and Counselling in Indian Colleges and Universities, UEIGB and USAB, Individual Testing and Non-Testing Devices in Guidance, Guidance in Adolescence, Guidance of Problem Children, Guidance of Backward Children and Guidance of Gifted Children. The book ends with a look at the future development of Careers Education and Guidance and highlights some useful strategies for change. This voluminous work on Guidance and Counselling fulfills the requirements of students, teachers, psychologists, professional counselors and practitioners in this field. Contents 1. Introduction Definitions of guidance; Characteristics of guidance; Views about kinds of guidance; Classification of guidance; Importance of guidance; Need of guidance; Guidance and counselling; Characteristics of guidance; Functions of guidance and counselling; Scope of guidance and counselling 2. Guidance, Education and Discipline Developmental guidance; Advice as guidance; Guidance and education; Guidance and discipline; Guidance and punishment; Preventive guidance; Role of the counsellor in discipline 3. Relation of Guidance to other Educational Specialities 34-39 Common objectives; Common techniques; Necessary teamwork; Guidance as an organised function; Scope of an organised guidance program 4. Bases, Objectives and Principles Fundamental objectives of guidance; Principles of guidance; Perspectives of guidance; Guidance vs. selection 5. Areas of Guidance Guidance in education; Guidance in vocation; Guidance in avocation; Guidance in social relationships; Guidance in promotion of health; Guidance in moral needs; Guidance in personal problems; Guidance in problems of marriage 6. Self Guidance Synonymous terms; The nature of the self; Development of the self-concept; Characteristics of self-understanding; Self image; The self-concept and decision making; Information and the individual; Measurement of self-understanding; Value of self concept : the case of Lisa 7. Guidance to other Individuals Importance of understanding others; Life areas requiring understanding; Psychological barriers to understanding; Social changes as barriers to understanding; Aids in understanding students 8. Leisure-time Guidance Place of leisure in society; Social and personal functions of leisure; Responsibility of the school; The counsellor s responsibility 9. Guidance Services in India Evolution of guidance and counselling movement in India; Organisation of guidance services in India; Popularisation and co-ordination of guidance services; Recommendations of the conference; Career literature for guidance corner and library in the school; List of agencies publishing career literature and occupational information material; Guidance at N.C.E.R.T.; All-India educational and vocational guidance association; The Education Commission 10. Student Counselling Counselling and psychotherapy; Objectives of student counselling; Scope of counselling; Levels of counselling; Classification of counselling; Situations requiring counselling; Kinds of counselling techniques 11. Group Guidance Definition; Importance of group guidance; Objectives of group guidance; Advantages of group guidance; Problems for group guidance; Principles of group guidance; Essentials of group guidance; Tools and techniques of group guidance; Career conferences; Audio-visual aids; Visits to work sites; Group activities vocational, recreational and educational; Occupational information through school subjects; Clinical method of guidance 12. Psycho-dynamics of Adjustment Motive and adjustment; Thwarting in adjustment; Maladjusted reactions; Criteria of personality adjustment; Common modes of reaction to difficulties; Scope of adjustment for students; View of Wilson and Chapman; Role of the class-room teacher in pupil adjustment 13. Professional Counselling Levels of counselling; Distinction from related concepts; Functions of counsellor; Qualifications of counsellor; Types of counselling; Directive counselling; Non-directive counselling; Directive vs. non-directive counselling; Eclectic counselling; Individual counselling; Rational-emotive therapy; Behavioural counselling; Group counselling 14. Counselling of Individuals Two traditions in USA; Orientation of students to counselling; The counselling process; The counsellor s attitudes and skills; Evaluating the effectiveness of counselling 15. Counselling for Vocational Development : Various Theories Trait and factor approach; Developmental theories; Structural theories; Assumptions of recent approaches 16. The Guidance and Counselling Services Guidance and counselling services; The pre-admission service; The admission service; The orientation service; The student information service; The information service; The counselling service; The placement service; The remedial service; The follow-up service; The research service; The evaluation service 17. The Guidance and Counselling Personnel The administrator; The dean; The counselling officer; The liaison officer; The teacher; The tutor; The adviser; The warden; The physical instructor; The librarian; The medical staff; The Parents 18. Collection, Filing and Dissemination of Occupational Information Collection of occupational information; Methods of collecting information; Methods of filing the information; Reference cards; Occupational classification systems; Use of NCO to employment officers; Use of NCO to other agencies; Code structure of NCO; Methods of disseminating information; Group techniques of imparting occupational information; Individual technique of imparting occupational information; List of agencies publishing career literature and occupational information materials; List of agencies publishing psychological tests 19. Psychological Aspects of Vocation Vocational choice; Vocational development; Vocational life stages; Factors governing vocational development; Meaning of vocational adjustment; Factors of vocational adjustment; Vocational maturity 20. Vocationalisation Allocation in time-table; Vocational electives; Advantages of vocationalisation; Importance of vocationalisation; Neglect of vocational education in India; Development of technical and vocational education in India; The problems of vocationalisation; Recommendations of committees and commissions; Problems and remedies of technical and vocational education 21. Vocational Guidance Definition of vocational guidance; Need of vocational guidance; Historical outline; Progress of vocational guidance; Process of vocational guidance; Steps of the vocational guidance method; Aims and objectives of vocational guidance, Responsibility of the school for vocational guidance; Co-operation of many agencies in guidance; Service rendered by vocational guidance programme; Principles of vocational guidance 22. The World of Work and Occupations Some definitions; Occupational information; Kinds of information concerning occupations; Classification of occupational information material; Sources of occupational information material; Methods of classifying and sorting occupational information; Sources of occupational material in India; Factors determining occupational choices; Factors determining vocational adjustment; Personality traits in career development; Major groups of occupations; Occupational field; Sources of occupational information 23. Institutions of Higher Learning and the World of Work Earn while you learn; Education suitable for market; Need of applied research; Control of lopsidedness; Challenge of super industrialism; Expanding world of work; Defects in higher education; Need of close liaison; Guidelines for close liaison 24. Job Analysis Definition of job analysis; Job analysis process; Significance or uses of job analysis; Advantages of job analysis; Basic outline of job analysis; Types of job analysis; Purposes of job analysis; Sources of information in job analysis; Scope of job analysis; Job description; Job specification; Job identification; Job summary; Job requirements; Why is a person rejected? How to hold the job? Rating for selecting a job; Job satisfaction 25. Educational Guidance Definition of educational guidance; Stages of educational guidance; Functions of educational guidance; Recommendations of the education commission; Nature of educational guidance; Individual educational guidance; Group educational guidance; Functions of educational guidance 26. Solving Educational Problems Methods and principles of admitting students to the different courses in higher secondary schools; Hints for educational and vocational orientation in standard x, xi and xii; Recommendations for developing study habits among children; Principles of developing good study habits; Methods of developing good study habit; Health guidance 27. Pupil Personnel Work in Indian Schools Implications of organising guidance services; Advantages of organising guidance services; Principles of organising guidance services; Organisation of guidance in a senior secondary school; Functions of the counsellor; Characteristics of school counsellor; Areas of knowledge needed by counsellors; Role of a teacher in guidance; Principles governing teachers role; Role of classroom teachers in guidance; Role of the principal in guidance; Role of the administrator in guidance; Role of area counsellor in guidance; Role of psychologist in guidance; Role of health specialist in guidance; Prerequisites of a guidance programme; Patterns of guidance organisation 28. New Pattern (10+2+3) of Education and Guidance Services Historical review; Salient features of the new pattern of education; New pattern of education and guidance services; Characteristic feature of the higher secondary stage; Vocational guidance in classes xi and xii; Types of guidance services in the school; A minimum guidance programme for higher secondary schools; Suggested activities; Suggestions for effective implementation of the scheme; Suggestions for solving problems concerning guidance; Model scheme for conduct of area skill survey 29. Guidance and Counselling in Indian Colleges and Universities Structure of guidance in colleges in universities; Essential guidance activities in colleges/universities; Guidance and counselling set-up in colleges; Guidance and counselling set-up in universities; A tentative schedule of guidance for various classes 30. The University Employment Information and Guidance Bureaux (ueigb) and University Students Advisory Bureaux (usab) U.e.i.g.b.; Procedure of employment; Communication between bureaux and the college; Limitations of the bureaux; Student advisory bureaux (sab); Universities and institutions of higher learning in India (state-wise); Students advisary bureaux in India 31. Personal Guidance Process of personal guidance; Methods of follow-up studies 32. Individual Testing and Non-Testing Devices in Guidance Types of data to be collected; Anecdotal record; A specimen of an anecdotal record; Comments of the observer; Personal data blank; Case history; Case history outline; Rating scales; Projective technique; Sociometric tests 33. Guidance in Adolescence Mental development in adolescence; Education of adolescents; Some common difficulties of adolescents and solutions 34. Guidance of Problem Children Causes of problematic behaviour; Cure of problem children; Child s defects and abnormalities; Physical defects and abnormalities; Stealing; Lying; Avoiding tasks allocated for home work; Absconding from Mathematics class; Being late for school 35. Guidance of Backward Children Problems of backward children; Causes of backwardness; Identification of backward children; Solution of education of backwardness; Backwardness and retardation; Slow learners 36. Guidance of Gifted Children Problems of the gifted child; Education of gifted children; Classification of gifted children; Behaviour patterns of gifted children; Adjustment problems of gifted children; Approaches to meeting the needs of the gifted; Special treatment to the gifted; Education of the gifted in India 37. Careers Education and Guidance Importance of career education and guidance; Career master; Career information service; An outline of a career talk About the Author(s) Dr. Ram Nath Sharma, M.A., D.Phil., D.Lit., has been President U.P. Philosophers Association for a decade; LMI : Indian Philosophical Association and Darshan Parishad; Director : Sri Aurobindo Research Institute; Chief Editor : Research Journal of Philosophy and Social Science; Head of the Department of P.G. Studies and Research at Meerut College for two decades. He has guided more than two dozen Ph.D. scholars. Dr. Sharma has authored more than one hundred research papers and an equal number of books in the field of Education and Psychology. Dr. Rachana Sharma, daughter of Dr. Ram Nath Sharma, a renowned author in Psychology, had been guiding retarded Children and Clinical Psychologist in Delhi and providing counselling to parents. Since 2000 she has been working in Department of Education, London, U.K. providing guidance and counselling to children of several races. She has utilised both her theoretical knowledge and practical experience in writing this book. Her Ph.D. work Hindu Techniques of Mental Health has been acclaimed both in East and West.
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