This historic book may have numerous typos, missing text or index. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. 1907. Not illustrated. Excerpt: ... 359] CHAPTER XII ARTIFICIAL IMMUNITY AGAINST TOXINS Adaptation to poisons.--Artificial immunity against bacterial and vegetable toxins and against snake venom.--Principal methods of immunisation.--Immunisation by toxins and toxoids.--Inoculation against- diphtheria toxin.--Phenomena produced in the course of vaccination against toxins.--Rise of temperature.-- Leucocytosis.--Development of antitoxic power.--Properties of antitoxins.-- Mode of action of antitoxins.--Action of antitoxins in vitro.--Their action in the organism.--Influence of living elements on the combination of antitoxin with toxin.--Antitoxic action of non-specific serums, of normal serums and of broth.--Immunity against toxins is not in direct ratio to the amount of antitoxins in the body fluids.--Hypersensitiveness of an animal treated with toxin.-- Diminution of the susceptibility of the organism immunised against toxins. Hypotheses as to the nature and origin of antitoxins.--Hypothesis of the transformation of toxins into antitoxins.--Hypothesis of receptors detached from cells us the source of antitoxins.--Hypothesis of the nervous origin of tetanus antitoxin. --Fixation of tetanus toxin by the substance of the nerve centres.--The relations between saponin and cholesterin.--Anti-arsenic serum.--Part played by phagocytes in the struggle of the animal against poisons.--Probable part played by phagocytes in the production of antitoxins. Although scientific men succeeded only a little more than ten years ago in vaccinating against poisons by artificial methods, savage races and ancient peoples at a very remote period undoubtedly possessed methods of counteracting the effects of certain venomous substances. The frequent observation of cases in which doses of poisons, insufficient to cause death, ..