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About the Book The volume provides not only a holistic view of various facets of education but also discuss the Futurology and the role of educational institutions in meeting the forthcoming challenges.
To provide a comprehensive overview of emerging concerns in the field of educator, inspiring and thought-provoking views of great thinkers of the East and the West are given in an easy-to-understand language, with a critical and meaningful analysis where needed. The role of the family, neighbourhood, community and the school in the optimum development and growth of the personality of the child is suitably highlighted.
The book offers practical suggestions in making the teaching-learning process lively, inspiring and effective. It will be a valuable addition for the libraries used by research scholars, teachers and students of the subjects dealt in the volume.
About the Author J.C. Aggarwal is a former Dy. Director of Education and Executive Director of the Delhi Bureau of Textbooks, Delhi Administration, Delhi. He worked at the grassroots level as a Post-graduate teacher, principal, plan evaluation officer and educational supervisor and administrator. He also taught in a PG Teacher Training College. He has widely travelled and written extensively on education.
Contents PREFACE UNIT I EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY AS THE FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION
1. Meaning, Definition and Significance of Educational Psychology Meaning and Definition of Educational Psychology / 1; Nature of Educational Psychology / 2; Scope of Educational Psychology / 2; Significance of Educational Psychology to Teachers / 4; Importance of Educational Psychology to Different Sections / 7; Importance of Educational Psychology to Parents / 7
2. Human Growth and Development: Significance, Characteristics and Principles/Stages-Educational Implications Significance of Child Development / 9; Some Prominent Educators and Thinkers on the Development and Education of Children / 10; Meaning of Human Development / 11; Distinction Between Growth and Development / 11; Characteristics and Principles of Development / 13; Educational Implications of the Principles of Development / 15; Interrelationships and Interdependence of various Patterns of Development / 16; Different Stages of Development and Implications / 18
3. Heredity (Nature) and Environment (Nurture): Development and Educational Implications Introduction / 21; Meaning of Heredity / 21; Principles of Heredity: How Heredity Operates / 21; Chart Showing the Contribution of Heredity On Personality Development / 22; Environment / 23; Hereditarians' Arguments and Studies / 23; Criticism of Hereditarians' Point of View / 24; Environmentalists' Point of view / 24; Some Studies on Environment / 25; Relative Contribution of Heredity and Environment on Growth and Development / 26; Influence of Heredity and Environment / 27; Educational Implications of the Role of Heredity and Environment / 28
4. Individual Differences: Types and Educational Implications Significance of Individual Differences Among Children / 29; Types of Individual Differences / 30; Individual Differences: Readiness / 30; Educational Implications of Individual Differences / 31; Meeting Needs of Individual Differences: Teaching Strategies and Class-room Measures / 32; General Guidelines for Meeting Individual Differences / 32; Summing up / 33
5. Physical Development Pattern and Educational Implications General Physical Development Pattern / 34; Characteristics of Physical Development Pattern and Needs of Children / 36; Growth and Development Rate, Growth and Development Curve: Characteristics and Stages / 37; Common Causes of Delayed Motor and Physical Development / 38; Factors Affecting The Pattern of Physical Growth and Development / 39; Summary: Important Characteristics of Physical Development Pattern / 39; Educational Implications of the Physical Development of the Children for the Teacher / 40; Organisation of Physical Development Programme / 40
6. Social Development Pattern and Educational Implications Meaning of Social Development Pattern / 41; Characteristics of Social Development Pattern / 41; Social Development Pattern at various stages / 42; Factors Affecting the Social Development of the Child / 43; Hindrances in the Social Development of the Child / 44; Role of the School in the Social Development of the Child / 44; Teacher's Role in the Social Development of the Child / 45; Concluding Observations / 46
7. Emotional Development Pattern and Educational Implications Significance of Emotional Development Pattern / 47; Meaning of Emotional development / 47; Chief Characteristics of Emotions / 48; Positive and Negative Effects of Emotions / 49; Understanding Emotions of Anger, Fear, Love and Jealousy / 50; Emotional Behaviour Pattern at Different Stages / 52; Classification of Emotional Pattern / 53; Comparison Between the Emotional Pattern of Childhood and Adulthood / 54; Factors at Home and School which Disturb the Emotional Development of Children / 54; Training, Sublimating and Modifying Emotions / 54; Role of the School and the Teacher in the Emotional Development of the Child / 55
8. Cognitive Development Pattern and Educational Implications: Piaget's Theory Meaning of Cognitive or Mental or Intellectual Development / 58; Process of Cognitive Development Pattern / 58; Factors Affecting Cognitive Development Pattern / 60; Cognitive Development Curve / 61; Jean Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development Pattern (Mental or Intellectual Development) / 63; Educational Implications of Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development and the Role of the School and Teacher / 66
9. Adolescence: Meaning, Characteristics, Problems and 68 Educational Implications Meaning and Definition of Adolescence / 68; General Characteristics of the Period of Adolescence / 69; Specific Needs of Adolescence with Special Reference to Indian Adolescents / 71; Physical Needs of the Adolescents and their Satisfaction / 72; Emotional Developmental Needs and their Satisfaction / 74; Educational Implications of Satisfying the Emotional and Psychological Needs of the Adolescents / 75; Social Development Needs of the Adolescents and their Satisfaction / 76; Intellectual/Mental Needs of the Adolescents and their Satisfaction / 78; Moral Development or Satisfaction of the Moral Needs of the Adolescents / 79; Major Interests, Goals and Values of Indian Adolescents / 80; Important Problems and Issues Involved in the Proper Development of Indian Adolescents / 81; Suggestive Measures for Meeting the Needs of Indian Adolescents / 83
10. Learning: Types and Factors of Learning Meaning of Learning: Definition, Characteristics and Goals / 84; Major Domains of Learning / 85; Learning Process / 86; General Principles of Effective Learning / 90; Elements in the Teaching-Learning Process: Implications of Learning for the Classroom Teacher / 90; Kinds/Types of Learning: Prime and Concomitant Learning / 91; Making Learning effective: Role of the school and the teachers / 92
11. Motivation Meaning of Motivation / 94; Process and Importance of Motivation / 97; Maslow's Need-Theory of Motivation / 98; Techniques of Enhancing Learner's Motivation / 102
12. Memory and Forgetting Significance of Memory / 104; Meaning of Memory / 104; Definitions of Memory / 104; Memory System / 105; Kinds and types of memory / 106; Factors Contributing to Good Memory / 107; Signs of Good Memory / 108; Methods of Measurement of Retention / 109; General Characteristics of Children's Memory and Adult's Memory / 109; Economical Methods of Memorising / 110; The Whole Method and Part Method / 110; Forgetting / 114; Nature and Characteristics of Forgetting / 114; Curves of Forgetting / 114; Types of Forgetting / 115; Causes and Minimising Forgetfulness / 116
13. Intelligence Meaning of Intelligence / 117; Operational Definition and Meaning of Intelligence / 119; Intelligence and Scholars of Ancient India / 119; Kinds of Intelligence and a Few Generalisations / 120; Development of Intelligence and Mental Testing / 120; Measurement of Intelligence / 122; Basic Concepts Involved in Intelligence and Intelligence Testing / 122; Classification of Individual on the Basis of I.Q. / 123; Important Uses of Intelligence Tests in Evaluation / 124
14. Personality Complex Nature of Personality and Definitions of Personality / 127; Characteristics and Nature of Personality / 128; Behavioural Patterns of Personality / 129; Marks of Balanced Development of Personality / 129; Development of Personality: Biological and Socio-cultural Determinants / 130; Barriers in the Development of Integrated Personality / 133; Integration of Personality and the Role of the School / 133 15. Suggestive Guidelines for Teachers for the Optimum Development and Education of the Students A to Z of Teaching Competencies and Skills Which Make Teaching-Learning Effective / 139
UNIT II PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION
16. Basic Ideas in Education Significance of Education / 140; Divergent Views on the Meaning of Education / 141; Etymological Meaning of Education / 141; Great Indian and Western thinkers on the Meaning of Education / 142; Analysis of Some Definitions of Education / 144; Functional and Operational Definition and Meaning of Education / 146; Sarcastic and Negative View of Education / 146; Nature of Education / 147; Retrospective and Prospective Nature of Education / 147; Chief Characteristics of the Nature of Education / 148; Broad and Narrow Meaning of Education / 148; What Education is Not and What Education is / 150; Functions of Education / 151; Characteristics of the Process of Education / 151; Why, Whom, Who, Where, What, How and When of Education / 152; Scope of Education / 153
17. Types of Education Three Types of Education / 154; Formal Education / 154; Informal Education / 154; Non-Formal Education / 155; Non-Formal Education and National Policy on Education-NPE (1986 and Revised Policy 1992) / 156; Broad Comparison Between Formal and Non-Formal Education / 157; Comparison of Formal and Informal Education / 159; Comparison Among Formal, Informal and Non-Formal Education / 160; Examples of Different Types of Education / 162; Narrowing Down the Gap Between Different Types of Education / 162; A Balanced View / 162; Traditional education and modern education at a glance / 163; Emerging Concerns And Modern Education / 164; Child-Centred Education and Teacher-Centred Education / 164
18. Aims and Objectives of Education Aims of education related to society / 166; Individual Aim and Social Aim in Education / 168; Priorities of Aims of Education in India / 170; Functions and Directions of Education in India / 172
19. Educational Philosophy Significance of Philosophy / 175; Meaning and Definition of Philosophy / 175; Chief Characteristics of Philosophy / 177; Why Do We Need Philosophy? / 177; Scope of Philosophy: Different Areas of Philosophy / 178; Relationship Between Philosophy and Education: Their Interdependence / 178; All Great Philosophers as Great Educators / 179; Dependence of Philosophy on Education / 180; Dependence of Education on Philosophy / 180; Significance of Studying Philosophy in Understanding Educational Practices and Trends: Contribution of Philosophy to Education / 181; Significance of Philosophy to the Teacher / 184
20. Major Philosophies and Their Impact on Education Idealism in Education: Idealism as the Oldest Philosophy / 186; Fundamental Principles of Idealism / 187; Idealism on Various Dimensions of Education / 188; Limitations and Weaknesses of Idealism / 191; Contribution of Idealism to Educational Theory and Practice / 191; Philosophy of Naturalism in Education: Meaning of Naturalism / 192; Chief Characteristics of Naturalism / 193; Naturalism and Its Various Dimensions of Education (Implications of Naturalism in Education) / 193; Limitations of Naturalism in Education / 196; Contribution of Naturalism to Education / 196; Pragmatism / 197; Broad Features of Pragmatism in Education / 199; Limitations of Pragmatism / 202; Contribution of Pragmatism to Education / 203; Comparative Impact of Idealism, Naturalism and Pragmatism on Educational Theory and Practice / 204
21. Rousseau (1712-1778) A Brief Life Sketch / 207; Publications of Rousseau and Essence of His Writings / 207; Rousseau's Views on Educational Theory and Practices / 207; 'Emile': An Important Treatise on Education / 212; An Analysis of Rousseau's Views on Education / 212; Rousseau's Contribution to Education / 213
22. Dewey, John (1852-1959) Brief Life Sketch of John Dewey / 214; Publications of John Dewey / 214; Philosophy of Pragmatism of Dewey / 215; Dewey's Views on Various Aspects of Education / 215; Functions of the School: School Related to Social Life / 219; Laboratory School, University of Chicago / 220; Essence of John Dewey's Work: Contribution to Education / 220; Evaluation of Dewey's Work / 221
23. Philosophical Thought in India and Its Contribution to Education Rich Philosophical Heritage / 223; Chief Sources of Indian Philosophical Thought / 224; The Vedic Philosophical Thought / 224; Educational Implications of the Vedic Thought / 226; Philosophic Thought as Contained in the Upanishads / 227; Philosophical Thought of the Bhagwad Gita / 229; Educational Implications of Philosophic Thought of Gita / 231; Systems of Philosophy and Their Educational Implications / 232; Salient Features of Indian Thought and Implications / 236
24. Swami Vivekananda's Philosophy and Its Impact on Education Brief Life Sketch of Swami Vivekananda / 240; Major Publications of Swami Vivekananda / 241; Principal Features of Swami Vivekananda's Philosophy / 241; Swami Vivekananda's Philosophy of Education / 241; Swami Vivekananda on Various Aspects of Education / 242; Contribution of Swami Vivekananda to Education: Relevance of His Views Today / 244
25. Rabindranath Tagore (1869-1941): Educational Philosophy and Its Impact Brief Life Sketch / 245; Tagore's Publications / 245; Factors Influencing Tagore's Philosophy of Education / 246; Tagore's Views on Various Aspects of Education in his own words / 247; Concept of an Ideal School / 248; Visvabharati at Shantiniketan in Natural Surroundings / 249; Tagore's Contribution to Education / 251
26. Philosophical Thought of Gandhiji (1869-1948) Brief Life Sketch of Gandhiji / 252; Gandhiji's Publications on Education / 252; Principal Features of Gandhiji's Philosophy of Life / 253; Factors that Influenced Gandhiji's Philosophy of Life and Philosophy of Education / 253; Thoughts of Gandhiji on Various Dimensions of Education in His Own Words / 254; Gandhiji's Dissatisfaction with the Existing System of Education and Formulation of Basic Systems of Education / 256; Origin of Basic education/ NaITalem /Wardha Scheme or System of Education / 257; Curriculum of Basic Education as It Emerged in Due Course / 257; Tenets/Merits of Basic Education/Chief Features / 258; Criticism of Basic Education / 260; Future of Basic Education and the Education Commission (1964-66) / 261; Summing up: The philosophy of Gandhiji and its Impact on Education / 262
27. Sri Aurobindo (1872-1950): Integral Education Brief Life Sketch / 263; Select Quotes of Sri Aurobindo on Education / 264; Prominent Features of Aurobindo's Philosophy / 264; Sri Aurobindo's Main Ideas on Education / 264; National System of Education / 266; Integral Education / 267; Two-fold Bases of Integrated Education / 267; Task of Integral Education / 268; Measures for Achieving the Ends of Integral Education / 269; Contribution of Sri Aurobindo to Education / 270
UNIT III : SOCIOLOGICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION
28. Educational Sociology Meaning and Definition of sociology / 272; Meaning of Sociological Basis of Edcation: Educational Sociology / 273; Brief History of the Development of Educational Sociology / 274; Scope of Educational Sociology / 274; Importance of Educational Sociology: Contribution of Educational Sociology to Education / 275
29. Education as an Instrument of Social Change: Role of the School Significant Features of Social Change and Elements / 281; Process of Social Change / 282; Causes/Factors of Social Change / 283; Barriers to Social Change / 284; Education and Social Change: Inter-relationship between Education and Social Change / 284; Educational Implications for bringing about Social Change in a Democratic Set up / 285; Education as an Instrument of Social Change / 285; Agencies of Education and Social Change / 287; School as a Social Institution and an Agent of Social Change and the role of the teacher / 287; Teacher as a Social Engineer and an Agent of Social Change / 290; Limitations of Education in Bringing about Changes / 291; Social Change and Education of the Masses / 292; Education of the Deprived Sections of the Society / 292
30. Education and National Development Meaning of National Development / 293; Chief Characteristics of a Developing (Emerging) and a Developed (Industrialised) Society / 293; India's National Development Vis--vis World (Around 2007) / 294; Problems of National Development. / 295; Significant Role of Education in National Development / 295; Role of Education in Solving Problems of National Development / 296; Role of Education in Increasing Production / 296; Role of Education in the Modernisation of Indian Society / 296; Role of Education in Promoting Social and National Integration / 297; Role of Education in Developing Democratic Values / 297; Role of Education in Establishing a Socialistic Pattern of Society / 297; Role of Education in Developing Secular Outlook / 297; Role of Education in Promoting International Understanding / 297
31. Social Justice, Equality: Role of Education (Empowerment of SCs, STs, OBCs and Education) Meaning of Social Justice and Equality / 298; Significance of Social Justice and Equality / 298; Impact of Socio-Economic Inequality on the Indian Democracy / 299; Causes of Social and Economic Inequality / 300; Three-fold Strategy for the Empowerment of SCs, STs and OBCs: Minimising Inequality / 300; Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes: Social Justice and Equality / 302; Measures for the Development of SCs and STs / 305; Approach for Empowering Tribals / 306; Overall Strategies for the Development and Welfare of the SCs and STs / 307; Directions Contained in National Policy on Education (1986 and 1992) on the Education of the Scheduled Castes / 308; Measures Being Taken to Promote Education among SCs: Equalisation with Non SCs / 309; Role of the Teachers / 310; Other Backward Classes (OBCs) / 310; Gradual Increase in Literacy Rates Among SCs and STs / 313
32. Education for Secularism, Democracy and Socialism Origin and Meaning of the Term Secularism / 315; Secularism in the Indian Constitution / 316; Indian Concept of Secularism and a Secular State / 318; Educational Implications of Secularism / 319; Democracy and Education / 320; Significance of Each Letter in the term Democracy: Values of Democracy / 321; Dimensions of Democracy / 322; Most Essential Elements of Democracy / 323; Relationship Between Democracy and Education / 323; Impact of Democracy in Education / 324; Functioning of the School on Democratic Principles and Promotion of Democratic Values in the Students / 325
33. Empowerment of Women: Role of Education Gender Bias in General / 327; Gender Disparity in India / 327; Women's Welfare in Independent India / 329; Women's Welfare: Some Milestones / 331; Empowerment of Women / 333; Education for Women's Equality and Empowerment / 335
34. Value Education Value Education-The only Basis of Establishing a Truly Democratic, Secular and Socialist Society / 338; Meaning of a 'Value' / 338; Classification of Values / 339; Alphabetical Classification of Values / 340; Traditional and Modern Values / 341; Education and Need for Inculcation of Values / 342; Value-Based Curriculum in India / 342; School Programme for Developing Values of Various Kinds / 343; Role of the Teacher / 343; Synthesis Between the Traditional Values and Modern Values: Synthesis Between Scientific, Secular and Spiritual Values / 343
35. Futurology: Education for the Future Society Meaning and Origin of the Term Futurology / 345; Chief Characteristics of Futurology / 345; Subjects and Methods of Study of Futurology / 345; Education as a Field of Study in Futurology / 345; Key Factors in the Paradigm Shift in the Future Education / 346; Chief Characteristics of the Future Education / 347; UNESCO and Reforms in Education / 347; Future Scenario of Tensions and the Role of Education / 348; Secondary Education/School for the Future / 351
36. Future Education in India Brief History of Attempts for Educational Reforms in India for the Future / 354; Pointers Towards Future Reforms in Education: Suggestive Models / 354; Prof. Malcolm S. Adiseshiah's Model / 354; Prof. S.V.C. Aiya's Model / 355; Future Scenario and Kirpal's Model of Future Education / 356; Future Schools and Classrooms of India / 357
37. Agencies of Education: School as an Agency of Education Meaning and Significance of Agencies of Education / 363; Broad Classification of Agencies of Education - I / 364; Agencies of Education: Classification No. II / 365; Agencies of Education: Classification No. III / 365; Agencies of Education: Classification No. IV / 365; No Watertight Division of Agencies of Education / 366; Broad Comparison Between Formal and Non-Formal Education / 366; Importance of School as a Social Institution and a Formal Agency of Education: Select views / 367; Functions and Roles of the School in the Society / 368; Measures to be Taken by the School to Perform Its Functions / 369; Functions of the School in Behavioural Terms: Historical Letter of Abraham Lincoln to the Headmaster of his son's school / 370
Psychological Philosophical And Sociological Foundations Of Education
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