Multistage low frequency Amplifiers (BJT/FET)Necessity of cascading LF small signal amplifiers in various configurations, techniques of improving input impedance of CC stage, Darlinton connection, Bootstrapping, CE - CE cascade, CE - CB cascade arrangement, Effect of cascading on frequency response of single stage and cascaded amplifiers, square wave testing or step response of AF amplifier.LF Amplifiers with negative FeedbackBlock schematic of amplifier with negative feedback, gain with feedback, consequences of introducing negative feedback in small signal and multistage amplifiers, classification of amplifiers in view of feedback concept, i.e. Ai, Av, Rm, Gm - Types of sampling and mixing - Ways of indroducing negative feedback in amplifiers i.e. voltage series, current series, voltage shunt, current shunt, effects of negative feedback on Ri and Ro in all four types, Methodology of feedback amplifier analysis.Large Signal (Power) AF AmplifiersClassification of amplifiers in Class A, B, C, etc. concept of large signal amplification, total harmonic distortion, push pull configuration, efficiency of power conversion, CE transformer coupled power amplifier, complementary symmetry CC power amplifier in single dual supply version. Efficiency and distortion analysis of those configurations (Graphical techniques to calculate harmonic distortion), Crossover distortion, SOA and its limits, secondary breakdown, Heatsink, its standard shapes and sizes, Thermal calculations and resistances.OscillatorsEmploying positive feedback in amplifier, problems of instability, Barkhausen criteria for sinusoidal oscilllators, derivation and analysis of transistorised RC phase shift/Wien bridge oscillators for frequency expressions and gain requirements. LC oscillators -Hartley, Colpitts, Clapp, Crystal (Miller & Pierce), UJT relaxation oscillator, gain & frequency stabilityOperational AmplifiersInternal block schematic of monolithic op-amp IC, Analysis of transistorised difference amplifier stage, Method of improving its CMRR, Definitions and Measurements of op-amp parameters like input offset voltage and current, bias current, CMRR, PSRR, open loop gain, etc. Concept of dc amplification, inability of op-amp to work as a linear small signal amplifier in open loop, op-amp with close loop negative feedback, close loop gain, and frequency response of op-amp, linear applications like inverting and non-inverting amplifier, summing, difference.RF/HF AmplifiersHybrid - n small signal model of BJT, its relation with h-parameters, definitions of fa, fp, fT. Calculation of Ai and Av with finite load and source resistances for CE stage. Gain bandwidth product, Tuned load, loaded and unloaded Q, insertion loss, single tuned amplifiers, staggered tuning, Cascade configuration for HF amplification.'Voltage RegulatorsZener diode as a shunt regulator, emitter follower regulator, transistorised series feedback type regulator, Comparisons of above discrete regulators on the basis of Sv, St and ro, CV/CC modes, over voltage/over current protection circuits, internal block diagram, pin diagram and specification of IC regulator 723, low/high positive voltage, negative and floating regulators using IC 723, Safe operating area of IC regulators.Considerations of PCB Design, fabrication and assemblyMechanical dimensions of devices and components used in electronic circuit and their dependencies on package of device, rules of preparing layout and drawing artwork, fabrication process of single sided PCB board/DSPTH, various copper clad laminates, composition of solder metal, etc.
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