Chapters: Myocardial Infarction. Source: Wikipedia. Pages: 101. Not illustrated. Free updates online. Purchase includes a free trial membership in the publisher's book club where you can select from more than a million books without charge. Excerpt: Myocardial infarction (MI) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI), commonly known as a heart attack, is the interruption of blood supply to part of the heart, causing heart cells to die. This is most commonly due to occlusion (blockage) of a coronary artery following the rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque, which is an unstable collection of lipids (fatty acids) and white blood cells (especially macrophages) in the wall of an artery. The resulting ischemia (restriction in blood supply) and oxygen shortage, if left untreated for a sufficient period of time, can cause damage or death (infarction) of heart muscle tissue (myocardium). Classical symptoms of acute myocardial infarction include sudden chest pain (typically radiating to the left arm or left side of the neck), shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, palpitations, sweating, and anxiety (often described as a sense of impending doom). Women may experience fewer typical symptoms than men, most commonly shortness of breath, weakness, a feeling of indigestion, and fatigue. Approximately one quarter of all myocardial infarctions are silent, without chest pain or other symptoms. Among the diagnostic tests available to detect heart muscle damage are the electrocardiogram, chest X-ray and various blood tests. The most often used markers are the creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) fraction and the troponin levels. On the basis of the ECG, a distinction is made between ST elevation MI (STEMI) or non-ST elevation MI (non-STEMI). Immediate treatment for suspected acute myocardial infarction includes oxygen, aspirin, and sublingual nitroglycerin. If further pain relief is needed, morphine sulfate should be avoid. Recent research has sh...More: http: //booksllc.net/?id=2055679
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