High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! In human anatomy, the pleural cavity is the body cavity that surrounds the lungs. The pleura is a serous membrane which folds back upon itself to form a two-layered, membrane structure. The thin space between the two pleural layers is known as the pleural cavity; it normally contains a small amount of pleural fluid. The outer pleura (parietal pleura) is attached to the chest wall. The inner pleura (visceral pleura) covers the lungs and adjoining structures, viz. blood vessels, bronchi and nerves. The parietal pleura is highly sensitive to pain while the visceral pleura is not, due to its lack of sensory innervation.