About the Book :
History of the Sikhs planned as a five-volume survey aiming to present a comprehensive view of the rise, growth and development of Sikh thought and action in every direction. This volume Evolution of Sikh Confederacies 1708-69, is second in the series. The whole series is based on original contemporary sources in Persian, Marathi, Gurumukhi, Urdu, Hindi and English known to exist in India and abroad. The dominating theme of the second volume is the Mughal-Sikh and Sikh-Afghan contest for the lordship of the Punjab. The first period of the struggle between the Mughal Emperors and the Sikhs under Banda Bahadur lasted from 1709 to 1716, when Banda was executed. The second period of conflict was from 1716 to 1753 between the Sikhs and five Mughal viceroys of the Punjab-Abdus Samad Khan, his son Zakariya Khan, his sons Yahya Khan and Shahnawaz Khan and their cousin Muin-ul-Mulk, popularly called Mir Mannu. The third period extended from 1754 to 1768 in the strife against Ahmad Shah Durrani who had annexed the Punjab in 1752. He inflicted the heaviest blows on the Sikhs like the one struck on the Marathas at Panipat in 1761. Having sacrificed about two lakhs of young men in the whole struggle the Sikhs came out victorious. The two chapters at the end give an account of Mughlani Begam and Adina Beg Khan, the last Muslim viceroys of the Punjab.