Dynamic Memory Perfect Spoken English

Dynamic Memory Perfect Spoken English (Paperback)

By Tarun Chakarborty 
Publisher: Diamond Books
Edition: Paperback
Language: English
ISBN: 8128815792
EAN: 9788128815799
No. of Pages: 152
Publish Date: 2007
Binding: Paperback
Ships to India.


Studies reflect those equipped with advanced skills of the English language are likely to advance their careers. A strong command over the language will lead to higher paying jobs, more social mobility, and a great deal of social success.
No matter what career you choose, whether it be engineering or history, having a powerful command of the English language will amplify the chances of success. Generally, your vocabulary needs to equate with those who are in your field of work. However, you need to acquire advanced skills to surpass your colleagues, and make yourself more marketable. People will certainly judge the way you speak, though you seldom realize that.
How to overcome the barriers'
Most of us are familiar with how people feel about appearances. The manner in which you communicate reflects your personality. Using poor grammar reflects you as a wolf in sheep's clothing even well dressed. You might look nice on the outside, but not so from within. You must focus on your appearance as well as your manner of speaking, to reflect your personality.
Most people underestimate the importance of mastering the language. This is particularly true for those who live in English speaking countries, such as the United States or Great Britain. For, their upbringing linked to the language skills they have acquired during their teens. They disbelieve such mastery other than acquiring skills from basic language course during childhood.
In the world of practice, mere basic knowledge leads you nowhere. People will berate you as an averager if you speak like a mediocre. Eloquence will project you with the charismatic personality as an ebullient speaker.
The initial barrier about your thinking that basic English is enough needs to be shred. This connotes the language spoken on routine basis with a vocabulary of around 15,000 words. The language comprises about 700,000 words. The typical native speaker uses only 5,000 in their routine. Most educated people who were qualified in graduate examination, or read books remain contented with an vocabulary of not more than 100,000. It is twice the amount of an average speaker. The people are more likely to land high paying jobs. You should be accessible to about 100,000 words or more to remain successful as an orator, or an erudite.
Many people have a poor command of the language, for they seldom read. They believe that they are unsuccessful in selling their skills. Not only does reading allow you to build up your vocabulary, but allows you to become more informed. Learning things around the world will make you wiser. People feel jealous about your charisma.
Reading can increase your IQ. Watching television cannot do this. Some even argue that it does the opposite. The fundamental step to increase your vocabulary calls for sustained reading.
Take sufficient time to recast the word properly in a sentence. Experiment it while speaking to people in a group. Using the word in your everyday speech and writing, the word will be retained in your memory. Studies have shown that you need to repeat the word at least seven times before it -sticks- to your memory.
Read whatever stuff you come across besides improving the vocabulary,viz., fiction as well as non-fiction. Read things you normally would not browse. This will expose you to the new words and their usage according to sequence. Increasing your skills can become very lucrative.
We shall recommend you to practice basic skills of reading, writing, speaking and listening in English.
About speaking English : Your ability to read and write O.K during the school days. You need to speak REAL English in REAL situations. Practice alone will make you perfect if you want to improve your spoken skills.
Spare time for practice amongst friends : Meet with friends who are learning like you. Spare at least half an hour a week. Increase the time to one hour as and when you feel confident.
Self-help is the best help: Incorporate new words, phrases and sift into their figures of speech.The practice will help in enhancing the fluency to move ahead.
Follow the undermentioned suggestions:
(a) Talk for a minute on a subject e.g. -my family- Try not to hesitate too long or repeat yourself. Think about how you fared later.
Repeat your performance. Use new set of words and phrases and link words. You will find the repeated performance better. Pick any new topic and repeat the exercise afresh.
(b) Making conversation : We illustrate simple conversations for your practice. Extend the dialogues with questions and answers when you are comfortable. See the change in your approach in continuing the conversation.
Most of the people seldom learn even 35 per cent of the vocabulary despite the fact that English is the universal link language. However, learning beyond your potential will glorify as the unique personality. It will open up new vistas that is inaccessible to others.
You will get the magnetic personality when you increase your vocabulary. It will open several doors closed for others who oscillate in routine conjunctions or prepositions .People will see you as monster with superficial intelligence. Obviously, your persona will reflect your individuality as well informed.

18. E-MAIL 71


Chapter Summary: There are four rules that helps you retrain your mind and tongue simultaneously so that you could have mastery.
These are:
1. Speak aloud to achieve the goal.
The reasons being none of the passive study undertook have trained your tongue to have command over speaking the language impeccably. The teenage days were spent just to grab the curricula and finish before deadline, without emphasizing on the brevity, punch and flavour.
2.Think about the routine developments in English : (A separate chapter will highlight about this issue)
Your mind must be actively involved in the development of syntax. The more actively your mind is involved, the more effective would be the learning process. It is unfortunate that none of Indians think in English while reading or conceiving the ideas. Reorient your mind work to think in terms of the prospective answer.
3. Your output will be proportional to the efforts you make. You had to reorient your subconscious mind by charging it with thoughts conceived in English afresh.
There will be progressive development of new patterns from a laborious and conscious effort. Speech could be reproduced effectively. For, you have mastered over vernacular without much ado or efforts to twist the tongue or allow passage of air through vocal cords In contrast, it requires experimentation and conscious effort when you first attempt to make an unknown discrete sound in English-this single sound, usually represented by one letter, is called a phoneme. Some new sounds will be relatively simple to make. Others will be more difficult.
Each phoneme has other phonemes or stops aside which alter the sound slightly. (A stop is a break caused by momentarily restricting the air flow with the tongue or throat.) For example, the simple English sentence, -Why didn-t that work'- may be difficult to pronounce, if your language does not use the English -th- sound. It may be difficult for another reason as well. There are two stops in the sentence. When properly pronounced, there is a stop between the -n- and -t- in -didn-t- and another stop between the final -t- in -didn-t- and the first -t- in -that.- The two stops would make it, though the sentence may be said quickly, -Why didn / t / that work'-
Your objective is not to write the sentence, -Why didn-t that work'- accurately. Your goal is not to say just well enough so that someone could figure out what you mean. Your objective is to say, -Why didn-t that work'- so perfectly to an American that she would believe to have been asked the question by a fellow American.
That degree of perfection requires umpteen repetition. Therefore-to be somewhat facetious-the more quickly you repeat a difficult phoneme frequently, the more quickly you will use fluently. -The more you speak aloud, the more quickly you could speak fluently.-
4. "Never utter any mistake while speaking English.-
You have reinforced the learning process each time you spoke. However, when you construct a sentence incorrectly, you have not only wasted the learning time used to construct that sentence, but must invest even more time in order to retrain your mind, mouth, and hearing in order to reconstruct the sentence correctly. The more you have used a sentence structure incorrectly, the longer it will take for your mind, mouth, and hearing to identify the correct syntax.
Ideally, if you used only correct syntax and pronunciation, you could retrain your speech in considerably less time. Consequently, you would learn to speak fluent English more quickly.
Traditional methods attempt to engage students in free speech by instant mode. It has a serious drawback, though it is commendable. A beginner does not have enough background to be reconstruct the syntax properly.
The instruction program seldom has enough teachers to correct erred students. Consequently, learners use incomplete syntax and verb while drafting sentences. The instructor often praises them for their valiant effort, in spite of the reality that they are learning to use English incorrectly. The student will need to spend even more time in relearning the correct syntax.
The best option available is to follow the audio content with perfect syntax comprising perfect pronounciation and verb placement. This sounds restrictive, but, in fact, it could be done.
Say, for example, that during the first two weeks of English study, you used only recorded exercises. You would repeat the recorded lesson material, which was accurate. For the entire instruction period, you would work by yourself while repeating the exercise umpteen times.
Needless to say, you would have spoken English better than you had been passively sitting in a conventional language class for a fortnight. Everything you learnt could have been correct with the syntax, placement of the verb and the pronounciation.
To continue the example, say that it was now time to attempt free speech. Yet, we dislike you to make mistakes. Consequently, free speaking would be borrowed from those sentences you have mastered. Your teacher would ask questions from the exercises in anticipation of your answers you have studied. Subsequently, you would be given questions for using similar structure as the sentences you already knew, but would substitute other vocabulary words of the lessons you learn.
I presume you are a school or college student or any young professional who had been influenced to speak fluently.
You will do better if you seek ways in which you could recast the syntax ab initio. Strike a careful balance between the free speech and the pattern of correct usage. Do everything in your power to use English correctly.
In the early weeks of the course, you spend more time repeating exercises than in engaging free speech. You need to spend a great deal of time speaking with others. Nonetheless, every time you encounter new syntax in English, use controlled language drills, longer enough so that your mind familize with correct sentence structure and pronunciation. Repeat the exercises until you say them accurately with perfect pronunciation. Read English newspaper articles aloud. Look for new vocabulary and sentence format. Mark the sentences, verify the vocabulary. Read and repeat from retention-the sentences aloud until they become a part of your speech.


Chapter Summary: Any language is unintelligible without skills in grammar. For, grammar comprises the rules used to put words together for coherent meaning. The issue is -How do you master the skills'
Traditional English instruction for non-English-speaking students has reversed the process. It has yielded poor results. Most English classes teach grammar as a foundation for spoken English. The quickest way to impart students is to teach them speak, like the missionary schools do. They should be taught sufficient grammar skills to qualify college entrance examination. It will serve as the foundation for them to proceed in career ahead. It takes a needlessly long time to succeed in teaching grammar and writing skills, much less fluent spoken English, at subsequent phase.
Learn excellent grammar skills while speaking. Every sentence you speak will teach you grammar. You will have learnt the grammar skills after umpteen times of repating.
Bear in mind, the grammar skills are mastered by speaking, not by writing.
Do not misinterpret what I say. You cannot speak any language well without its grammar skills and adaptation. We could use a given number of words to make a statement or ask a question in which we order the words through inflection. To say, place the words in correct order with applied skills. The issue is not whether you need to know the grammar skills.
English is unintelligible without the grammar skills. The question is, -How will you learn English grammar best?- I think you will learn better and faster by learning as a spoken language.
Effective spoken English instruction simultaneously trains your cognitive and sensory centers of speech. When is the best time to learn that the sentence, -That is a book,- is an English statement, and the sentence, -Is that a book'- is an English question? The best time is when you simultaneously learn to speak these two sentences. That would take place while you learn many similar sentences to influence a cognitive sense reinforced by the auditory feedback. You will learn that the order and inflection of one sentence is a question, while the other is a statement.
The sound of the sentence is as much an indicator of its meaning as its written form. Right'
There is a relation between good pronunciation and good spelling. I am a poor speller. I understand that I misspell many words, because I mispronounce them. Everybody must learn to spell effectively. Yet, it will probably be faster for you to learn good spelling after learning good pronunciation than you could learn good spelling without able to speak.
I am not saying that grammar or spellings are unnecessary. Rather, I assert that grammar could be taught more effectively-and in less time-by using audio language drills. Teaching grammar by means of spoken language reinforces the cognitive learning adapting to additional function of normal speech- auditory feedback. Teaching grammar as a written exercise does develop cognitive learning, but it reinforces with visual feedback.
It is beyond the scope of this book on the visual feedback. The reinforcement of visual feedback outside the spoken English context is far less effective than motor skill feedback. The spoken language context has visual and auditory feedback. It could be gained by sentence sounds by identifying correct grammar skills. You should recast your subconscious mind on the utility of correct
grammar skills.
It would take appreciable time to write English grammar exercises, and adapt in routine practice. The gain could surpass the usage and style, if the rules of grammar were incorporated into the spoken language lessons.
If you study spoken English for a year, you will gain a great deal of fluency. You shall have a good understanding of English grammar. You will have limited fluency with least practical understanding, on spending sufficient time to do so.
Perhaps, you are reading the book with the assumption that you have spent less time in speaking than on writing the text.


Chapter Summary: It is presumed that the study must be apportioned into the beginning, intermediate and advanced stages without evaluating the unique qualities of the language. However, a careful assessment of English indicates that it does not use multiple levels of language complexity.
The kind of sentences which you use as a beginner are similar to one in the advanced stage. You must learn the context in full sentences. You must use similar sentences to perfect syntax and intonation, in the advanced stage.
Your needs while doing so will influence how you to answer the title question. You may spend sufficient time to acquaint with basic skills because the language do not have any specific skills for beginner. You could easily acquaint with them, provided you need what adapted in the daily newspapers.
Do you need the basic lessons'
I wonder whether beginner and the student in advance stage could use similar lessons to learn spoken English. -Does English have multiple, specialized language divisions'- is the factor haunting even the linguists and scholars alike.
The answer is, -No, it does not.- There is no high English language spoken by the gentry versus a low language spoken by commoners.
Historically, many languages such as Greek and Chinese, have indeed used two levels. Modern English does not have a specialized construction for folklore.
Many languages in which oral tradition has been preserved have a storytelling format, distinct from the language adapted in everyday conversation. You will often find specialists, who recount folktales in public gatherings. Common English do not have such feedback.
English is so simple in this regard. We do not have two forms to address the people of different social status. French, for instance, has strict conventions regarding the use of -tu- or -vous- when addressing someone. A U.S. citizen, however, would address both the President of the United States and a young child as -you.-
English has specialized vocabularies. Any student who undertook study in anatomy, law, physics, automotive technology, psychology, engineering, geology, or anthropology spends appreciable time in learning specialized terminology. The essential syntax which holds words together in a sentence is still the language of the street-or that of any daily newspaper.
English has no divisions representing levels of complexity aside from specialized vocabularies. Any individual with secondary school education could evaluate another speaker's ability to use good or defective English.
You could find technical documents except the paragraph cited such as legal briefs, technical proceeds and the like. However, this style of English is far from the language used in normal intercourse.
You need not adapt two or more levels in acquiring with skills. However, the complexity subsists in spoken English at all levels, rather in the higher level.
Traditional language programs insisted for assorted beginning, intermediate, and advanced stages. For, some rules of grammar are easy to explain. Some rules are more difficult to comprehend, while others are complex enough calling for justification on technical grounds. However, spoken English is one subject of study, whereas the formal rules of English grammar are quite another. Now I can answer the question, -Do you need beginning and advanced level of spoken English? If you are a beginner, you must speak sentences used by common man. If you have studied the lingo for several years and consider yourself an advanced student, you must proceed until you could pronounced the words impeccably under normal conditions.
You will wonder about the appreciable difference in the fluency between the beginner and one who is in theadvanced stage. They need not study but must use the same sentences to initiate, and proceed to acquire the necessay skills for acquiring fluency.
The interpretation below is understandable.
English grammar identifies simple sentences (sentences with one main clause), compound sentences (sentences with two or more main clauses), complex sentences (sentences with one main clause and at least one subordinate clause), and compound-complex sentences (sentences made up of two or more main clauses and at least one subordinate clause).
An example of a compound-complex sentence would be, -The Saturday afternoon program was like a two-ring circus; while one part of the TV screen carried the professional football game, the other part showed scores from collegiate games.-
A beginner cannot be expected to form the syntax. The complexity of the sentence is not in the language level of the sentence, except the punctuation. The sentence could be split into three simple sentences: -The Saturday afternoon program was like a two-ring circus. One part of the TV screen showed the professional football game. The other part of the TV screen showed scores from collegiate games.- Aside from the vocabulary, any of these sentences are beginning level sentences.
I am not speaking about a grammatical definition to ignore the difference between the simple and complex sentences. It is not to mention that languages used by commoner and peer are quite different. The television split screen sentence does not represent multiple, specialized language divisions.
Not really. Once you understand the -hello-s and -goodby-s in English, you could practice with normal sentences. Aside from sentences with specialized vocabulary, most English sentences use common verbs and syntax construction. Use the language from the very start of your language study, needed to master.
Your objective is to adapt in normal intercourse, though grammar skills are part of the exercise.
Everyday English, of course shall remove the discrepancies any. It will remove a great deal of stress observed in the very first week. Your study will never be difficult than you will encounter during the practice.

Probably, the improper use of verbs with the person and tense will make the beginner face hardships. You should emphasize on learning to use the verb correctly, with specialized drills.
Learn various forms of each verb. You shall find its utility in a shorter interval of time.
Once a particular verb tense is learnt, it is presumed that students need not require any review. They might write the present tense forms for many regular verbs, which is not objective. Can they use those forms in spontaneous spoken English? Our goal is to help the students reach a level of fluency in which they could use verbs in their tenses and persons correctly in normal speech.
Do not get satisfied by simply learning verb tenses and persons in written form. You seldom know a verb's parsing, until you use it fluently in spontaneous intercourse.
We try to follow the same pattern with other types of English words. It is far easier to learn big, bigger, and biggest, or angry, angrier, angriest, and angrily as cognate groups than learning them as individual vocabulary words. Not only is it easier to remember bad, worse, worst, and badly as a group, but their meaning is better understood, because they are logically related to each other. Its greatest advantage, however, is that this method teaches students how the English language is being developed. When students know big, bigger, and biggest, they could develop the word tallest, if they know the word tall. The real essence of language fluency lies in understanding that language well enough to intuitively use new vocabulary during actual intercourse.
You may find the description helpful to organize words in table form. You should learn to use the words in the context of spoken language, not merely written tables.
Verbs carry the idea of being or action in the sentence.
l I am a student.
l The students passed all their courses.
Verbs are classified in many ways. First, some verbs require an object to complete their meaning: -She gave _____ ?- Gave what? She gave money to the church. These verbs are called transitive. Verbs that are intransitive do not require objects: -The building collapsed.- In English, you cannot tell the difference between a transitive and intransitive verb by its form; you have to see how the verb is functioning within the sentence. In fact, a verb can be both transitive and intransitive: -The monster collapsed the building by sitting on it.-
Although, you will seldom hear the term, a ditransitive verb-such as cause or give-is one that can take a direct object and an indirect object at the same time: -That horrid music gave me a headache.- Ditransitive verbs are slightly different, then, from factitive verbs wherein the latter takes two objects.
Verbs are being classified as either finite or non-finite. A finite verb makes an assertion or expresses a state of being and can stand by itself as the main verb of a sentence.
l The truck demolished the restaurant.
l The leaves were yellow and sickly.
Non-finite verbs (think -unfinished- cannot, by themselves, be main verbs:
l The broken window . . .
l The wheezing gentleman . . .
A linking verb connects a subject with its complement. Sometimes, linking verbs (called copulas) reflect the forms of the verb to be, but relate to the five senses (look, sound, smell, feel, taste) or reflect a state of being (appear, seem, become, grow, turn, prove, remain). The linking verb will be either a noun complement or an adjective complement:
l Those people are all professors.
l Those professors are brilliant.
l This room smells bad.
l I feel great.
l A victory today seems unlikely.
A handful of verbs reflecting a change in state of being are called resulting copulas. They, too, link a subject to a predicate adjective:
l His face turned purple.
l She became older.
l The dogs ran wild.
l The milk has gone sour.
l The crowd grew ugly.
A separate section deals with the issues raised by verb-s VOICE (active/passive).
Mood in verbs refers to any of the three attitudes of the writer or speaker. The indicative mood, describes most sentences (on this page) to make a statement or ask a question. The imperative mood describes any directive, strong suggestion, or order:
l Get your homework done before you watch television tonight.
l Please include cash payment with your order form.
l Get out of town!
Notice that there is no subject in these imperative sentences. The pronoun you (singular or plural, depending on context) is the -understood subject- in imperative sentences. Virtually all imperative sentences, then, have a second person (singular or plural) subject. The sole exception is the first person construction, which includes an objective form as subject: -Let-s (or Let us) work on these things together.-
The subjunctive mood is dependent on clauses to follow.
1. express a wish; 2. begin with if and express a condition that does not exist (is contrary to fact); 3. begin with as if and as though when such clauses describe a speculation or condition contrary to fact; and 4. begin with that and express a demand, requirement, request, or suggestion..
l She wishes her boyfriend were here.
l If Juan were more aggressive, he-d be a better hockey player.
l We would have passed if we had studied harder.
l He acted as if he were guilty.
l I requested that he be present at the hearing.
The subjunctive is not as important a mood in English, as in languages French or Spanish. The latter highlights the subtlety and discrimination in hypothetical, doubtful, or wishful expressions. Subjunctive mood is being adapted by using one of auxiliary verbs in English.
The present tense of the subjunctive uses only the base form of the verb.
l He demanded that his students use two-inch margins.
l She suggested that we be on time tomorrow.
The past tense of the subjunctive has similar forms as the indicative, except (unfortunately) for the verb to be, which uses were regardless of the number of the subject.
l If I were seven feet tall, I-d be a great basketball player.
l He wishes he were a better student.
l If you were rich, we wouldn-t be in this mess.
l If they were faster, we could have won that race.
Helping or Auxiliary Verbs
Helping verbs or auxiliary verbs such as will, shall, may, might, can, could, must, ought to, should, would, used to, need are used in conjunction with main verbs to express shades of time and mood. The combination of helping verbs with main verbs creates what are called verb phrases or verb strings. In the following sentence, -will have been- are helping or auxiliary verbs and -studying- is the main verb; the whole verb string is underlined:
l As of next August, I will have been studying chemistry for ten years.
Students should remember that adverbs and contracted forms are not, technically, part of the verb. In the sentence, -He has already started.- the adverb already modifies the verb, but it is not really part of the verb. The same is true of the -nt in -He hasn-t started yet- (the adverb not, represented by the contracted n-t, is not part of the verb, has started).
Shall, will and forms of have, do and be combine with main verbs to indicate time and voice. As auxiliaries, the verbs be, have and do can change form to indicate changes in subject and time.
l I shall go now.
l He had won the election.
l They did write that novel together.
l I am going now.
l He was winning the election.
l They have been writing that novel for a long time.
In England, shall is used to express the simple future for first person I and we, as in -Shall we meet by the river?- Will would be used in the simple future for all other persons. Using will in the first person would express determination on the part of the speaker, as in -We will finish this project by tonight, by golly!- Using shall in second and third persons would indicate some kind of promise about the subject, as in -This shall be revealed to you in good time.- This usage is certainly acceptable in the U.S., although shall is used far less frequently. The distinction between the two is often obscured by the contraction -ll, which is the same for both verbs.
In the United States, the people seldom use shall for anything other than polite questions (suggesting an element of permission) in the first-person:
l -Shall we go now'-
l -Shall I call a doctor for you'-
(In the second sentence, many writers would use should instead, although should is somewhat more tentative than shall.) In the U.S.,the verb will is used in other cases, to express the future tense.
Shall is often used in formal situations (legal or legalistic documents, minutes to meetings, etc.) to express obligation, even with third-person and second-person constructions:
l The board of directors shall be responsible for payment to stockholders.
l The college president shall report financial shortfalls to the executive director each semester.-
Should is usually replaced, nowadays, by would. It is still used, however, to mean -ought to- as in
l You really shouldn-t do that.
l If you think that was amazing, you should have seen it last night.
In British English and very formal American English, one is apt to hear or read should with the first-person pronouns in expressions of liking such as -I should prefer iced tea- and in tentative expressions of opinion such as
l I should imagine they-ll vote Conservative.
l I should have thought so.
In the simple present tense, do will function as an auxiliary to express the negative and to ask questions. (Does, however, is substituted for third-person, singular subjects in the present tense. The past tense did works with all persons, singular and plural.)
l I don-t study at night.
l She doesn-t work here anymore.
l Do you attend this school'
l Does he work here'
These verbs also work as -short answers,- with the main verb omitted.
l Does she work here? No, she doesn-t work here.
With -yes-no- questions, the form of do goes in front of the subject and the main verb comes after the subject:
l Did your grandmother know Truman'
l Do wildflowers grow in your back yard'
Forms of do are useful in expressing similarity and differences in conjunction with so and neither.
l My wife hates spinach and so does my son.
l My wife doesn-t like spinach; neither do I.
Do is also helpful because it means you don-t have to repeat the verb:
l Larry excelled in language studies; so did his brother.
l Rocky studies as hard as his sister does.
The so-called emphatic do has many uses in English.
(a). To add emphasis to an entire sentence: -He does like spinach. He really does!-
(b). To add emphasis to an imperative: -Do come in.- (actually softens the command)
(c). To add emphasis to a frequency adverb: -He never did understand his father.- -She always does
manage to hurt her mother-s feelings.-
(d). To contradict a negative statement: -You didn-t do your homework, did you?- -Oh, but I did finish
(e). To ask a clarifying question about a previous negative statement: -Rosy didn-t take the tools.- -Then who did take the tools'-
(f). To indicate a strong concession: -Although the Samsons denied any wrong-doing, they did return some of the gifts.-
A form of do is used in question and negative constructions known as the get passive, in the absence of other auxiliaries.
l Did Ronaldo get selected by the committee'
l The audience didn-t get riled up by the politician.
Forms of the verb to have are used to create tenses known as the present perfect and past perfect. The perfect tenses indicate something happened in the past; the present perfect indicating the action might be continuing, while the past perfect to have completed prior to some other action.
To have is also in combination with other modal verbs to express probability and possibility in
the past.
l As an affirmative statement, to have can express how certain you are that something happened (when combined with an appropriate modal + have + a past participle): -Georgia must have left already.- -Clinton might have known about the gifts.- -They may have voted already.-
l As a negative statement, a modal is combined with not + have + a past participle to express how certain you are that something did not happen: -Clinton might not have known about the gifts.- -I may not have been there at the time of the crime.-
l To ask about possibility or probability in the past, a modal is combined with the subject + have + past participle: -Could Clinton have known about the gifts'-
l For short answers, a modal is combined with have: -Did Clinton know about this?- -I don-t know. He may have.- -The evidence is pretty positive. He
must have.-
To have (sometimes combined with to get) is used to express a logical inference:
l It-s been raining all week; the basement has to be flooded by now.
l He hit his head on the doorway. He has got to be over seven feet tall!
Have is often combined with an infinitive to form an auxiliary whose meaning is similar to -must.-
l I have to have a car like that!
l She has to pay her own tuition at college.
l He has to have been the first student to try that.

Chapter Summary: A written text on audio recording will be easier to make than drafting a newspaper content. The contents of radio programmes could easily be recorded and transcribed back.
A newspaper could serve an excellent source for study. Most newspapers adapt good syntax, relatively simple sentences, and common expressions. These will generate many political, scientific, economic, and technical jargon besides common words. Often, they adapt colloquial expressions to bring flavour.
I shall explain the use of a newspaper as an English text here. It will help you assimiate the contents very well.
You can become very fluent in English-and develop an excellent vocabulary-if you continue to read English newspapers aloud. Reading aloud and jot down the words in a notebook. Practice regularly to get optimum results.
I have presumed your pronunciation and voice inflection would be acceptable.
First, read the article out aloud. Identify new words of influence. Read, pause and find out from the dictionary what the new word means. Keep a notebook. Put a check ( ) in front of such words used repetitively for special study. Please avoid checking the names of places or people. Review the meaning of the new jargon after first perusal. Study them quite frequently after reading the article. Always pronounce vocabulary words-do even your vocabulary study out loud.
Select other newspaper articles and continue reading aloud while you look for new vocabulary words. Jot down the word you come across in the first newspaper in your notebook, for recheck. Any such word with two checks should be memorized for regular adaptation.
Write cognate forms of that word. For example, to adhere, an adhesive, and adhesion are cognates. It will be helpful to learn multiple cognate forms rather than learning each form as a new word. Association of single word in multiple forms with one root meaning will result in more rapid vocabulary retention. It will teach you how to develop cognate forms of words as you speak English in
the future.
Verbs should be listed in your notebook by their infinitive form (for example, -to remember- rather than by a conjugated form (for example, -she remembers- It will be simpler to learn a single verb form than attempting to learn each form of a verb as an individual vocabulary word after mastering its conjugation.
Re-read the article aloud for meaning. Pause, and figure out what the sentence means if you could not understand. Find the word that failed to make sense again in your dictionary. Try to find out analgous meanings the words carry. Write that definition if the analogous meaning makes a better sense. Two or more words jumbled in a single expression needs to be evaluated. Look for similar expressions in other articles. Ask your teacher for assistance on determining its meaning.
Reading a newspaper article aloud is an ideal way. It reinforces your use of correct syntax. Your goal is to retrain your mind, hearing, and voice to appreciate such usage. Perhaps, you will read a large number of different organized sentences on preset grammar rules. You will also learn the acceptable range of the syntax at variance, which are correct. For example, the placement of the word -however- at the beginning, middle, or end of a sentence, or any other mode to enhance its meaning or
create difference.
Using the newspaper for syntax development will enhance your fluency in your intercourse and recasting statements for text.
Expressions add richness to all languages. Identify them as you browse the newspaper. Use a special mark to identify them in articles. Many expressions may be apportioned to separate
Substitution will help the problem. Say or write through as many sentences as possible. You may read a sentence in a newspaper, -The President announced Friday that he will not run for another term, putting to rest months of speculation about his future intentions.- Most expressions can be used in different tenses with different people or things.
For example, the expression -to put to rest- can be used in the present, -I want to put our disagreement to rest,- in the future, -He will put his argument to rest,- or in the past, -They finally put their rivalry to rest.- Notice that in the last phrase, the component parts of the expression are separated: -They finally put their rivalry to rest.- English uses word forms as a type of expression, to continue with another illustration. For example, you may read a sentence in a newspaper which says, -We-re getting all kinds of calls from people who are panicking and asking what they can do.-
This form of expression uses two or more words ending in -ing- to describe two or more actions that the same person is doing at one time.
You could simply read rather than repeating a sentence from retention. You would want to read the entire article aloud for fluency practice. Try reading the article as smoothly as possible without stopping. Read it aloud at least twice.
For fluency, continue reading the article aloud until you find an American speaker repeating the same. Practice until your pronunciation resembes those newspaper articles.Keep abreast of the state of developments and read the articles so. Fluency is the ability to speak smoothly with proper intonation.Use single sentences for fluency drills. Read that frequently and smoothly. Repeat the process with multiple senteces or paragraphs. A beginner reads a longer passage or entire article without break to establish its rhythm.
Your natural tendency will be to move on to new articles too quickly. In reality, it would only be after you already know all of the vocabulary and can pronounce each word correctly that you would be ready to use the newspaper article to full advantage. You would not be fully retraining your mind and tongue until you could read the article at normal speaking speed with proper inflection and pronunciation. You would accomplish more in attaining fluent speech by re-reading fewer articles aloud perfectly than you would by reading many articles aloud with faulty pronunciation.
Using a newspaper article will be a great aid in producing conversation which is essentially free of mistakes. A newspaper article can give you a great deal of structure for conversation practice. This structure would give both you and your English teacher a defined group of vocabulary words, defined sentences with an understood meaning, and a defined context in which the vocabulary and sentences can be communicated. Your English teacher could use the newspaper article to structure free conversation. To continue with the illustration, your English teacher could lead you in a discussion stemming from a newspaper article. You could easily have the following discussion after only four weeks of full-time language study. Notice that your teacher would ask each question twice, expecting that you will substitute a pronoun in the second response.
English teacher: -What did the President announce Friday'-
Your response: -The President announced Friday that he will not run for another term.-
English teacher: -What did the President announce Friday'-
Your response: -He announced Friday that he will not run for another term.-
English teacher: -Will the President run for another term'-
Your response: -No, the President will not run for another term.-
English teacher: -Will the President run for another term'-
Your response: -No, he will not run for another term.-
English teacher: -When did the President announce that he will not run for another term'-
Your response: -The President announced Friday that he will not run for another term.-
English teacher: -When did the President announce that he will not run for another term'-
Your response: -He announced Friday that he will not run for another term.-
Assuming that you had only been studying English not so long, your initial response to each question would be halting. You would also be looking at the printed text when your English teacher initially asked the question. But at least your answer would be word perfect. Now you would want to add perfect pronunciation and fluency to that.
During typical English instruction, extra attention is usually given to poor performance. That is, when you use a sentence incorrectly, it is corrected with additional drills. On the other hand, when you respond correctly, the teacher moves on to the next sentence. That is not what you would want your English teacher to do for you now. Of course, you would want help with incorrect syntax and pronunciation. But in order to learn the language effectively, you would want to emphasize correct language use. To continue our example, say that none of the sentences in the above illustration would contain any phonemes which you could not reproduce acceptably.
Therefore, your English teacher would continue to drill you on these same sentences until you pronounce them perfectly. Teacher would again ask the first question twice, allowing you to respond accordingly.
English teacher: -What did the President announce Friday'-
Your response: -The President announced Friday that he will not run for another term.-
English teacher: -What did the President announce Friday'-
Your response: -He announced Friday that he will not run for another term.-
However, you would not be looking at the text. Your teacher would ask questions until you answer word perfectly from retention. She would still not be finished. She would increase her tempo and in anticipation of your answer, accordingly. She would persist until the two of you speak so quickly and naturally that an American entering your room, would not find any redundancy in your intercourse. It would be understandable to that speaker as any conversation between two Americans in a grocery store. This would continue-may be for several days of practice-until the entire series of questions from that newspaper article could be answered fluently.
You would be worn out by the time you had finished studying from a newspaper article. Yet, others would initiate after four weeks of study, when would be speaking on an advanced level, though you would be using a relatively small number of sentences.


Courtesy : Lynn Lindquist


A homonym which has similar sound and sometimes, but not always, similar spelling but differs in meaning, for example:
l right (correct) and write (to record)
The best way to remember the difference between such words is to practice them in sentences that mean something to you personally.
Sometimes, it helps to hint, for example to remember the difference in stationary and stationery think of the third letter -e- - paper goes in an envelope.
Another hint for words like advice-advise and licence- license, if it ends in ce it is a thing (noun) and se it is the action (verb).
Selecting the right word, when you write helps in proper communication. Many words
in the language people adapt can be mixed-up with another word that sounds or resembles similar.
a lot : many, as in: A lot of people are doing business online today much, as in: Some people worry a lot about their health.
alot : Wait a minute, there is no such word as alot! It should be two words: a lot, if you mean many or much, or allot, if you mean distribute.
allot : give out or distribute, as in: We will allot the prizes by date of contest entry.
a while : a period of time, as in: I haven-t seen her in a while.
awhile : for a short time, as in: Let-s stay awhile and talk.
accede : (1) give in to, as in: We accede to your demands.
(2) take a position of authority, as in: When did the King accede to the throne'
exceed : to go past a stated amount, as in: It is illegal to exceed the speed limit.
accent : (1) way of speaking characteristic of a particular region or group, as in I speak with a US. accent.
(2) emphasize one part of something, as in: Accent your good points.
ascent : upward movement, as in: We watched the ascent of the balloon as long as we could.
assent : to agree, as in: I doubt he will assent to the arrangement.
accept : to agree to take, as in: I accept the terms of your offer.
except : excluding, as in: I knew all the answers on the test, except the last one.
access : permission to go in or to approach, as in: No one has access to my private files but me.
accessible : capable of being approached, as in: The back door is accessible from this path.
assess : evaluate, as in: When the flood waters go down, we can assess the damage.
assessable : capable of being evaluated, as in: After the zoning law is changed our property will be assessable.
excess : more than enough, as in: We gave our excess fruit to our neighbors.
ad : short for advertisement, as in: I placed an ad in the paper.
add : to join or to combine, as in: Please add my site to your bookmark list.
adapt : to change to fit, as in: Newcomers quickly adapt to the culture of the Internet.
adept : expert, as in: She was adept at using the graphics to illustrate complex ideas.
adopt : to take as one-s own, as in: Would it be better to make our own rules, or adopt theirs'
addenda : something added, as in: That problem is covered in the addenda to the software manual.
agenda : list of things to do, as in: What is the agenda for the meeting tomorrow'
addition : something added, as in: We toured in addition to the hospital choirs yesterday.
edition : published version, as in: Read the latest edition of the Tax Tips and Tactics newsletter.
adherence : firm attachment, as in: She demonstrates a strict adherence to the rules.
adherents : advocates or supporters, as in: Many people in that country are adherents of the concept of free speech.
adverse : hostile, as in : The adverse weather conditions have forced them to turn back.
averse : reluctant, as in: I am not averse to hearing your suggestions.
advice : guidance or counsel, as in: Your sound advice saved me from a terrible mistake.
advise : to counsel, recommend, or inform, as in: I advise you to validate the code on your Web page, before releasing to the general public.
affect : to act upon or influence, as in: Strong emotions can affect your health.
effect : (1, a noun) immediate or direct result, as in: What effect does that medicine have on you'
(2, a verb) accomplish, as in: He braided the bedsheets to effect an escape.
aggravate : to make worse, as in: Lying to cover up a crime will aggravate the offense.
aggregate : to collect together or total, as in: Charges for a corporate Web site can aggregate into tens of thousands of dollars.
aid : help, as in: He rushed to the aid of the victim with no thought for his own safety.
aide : assistant or helper, as in: The Governor-s aide will hold a press conference this afternoon.
bail : security given for release from jail, as in: The bail was set at $100,000.00
bale : a large bundle, as in: The hay was collected and compressed into a bale.
bare : exposed to view, as in: The bare branches of trees made the lacy patterns against the
winter sky.
bear : (1) carry or transport, as in: I bear a gift for you.
(2) tolerate, stand or endure, as in: I can-t bear to hear another word.
(3) a large mammal, as in: We saw a bear at the zoo.
base : the bottom part which supports that above it, as in: We camped overnight at the base of
the mountain.
bass : deep or low in sound, as in: You sang the high notes, and I-ll do the bass.
bases : (1) plural of base, as in: The Army closed down bases in that country.
(2) plural of basis, as in: The bases of his theories were flawed.
basis : fundamental principal, as in: Your accusation has no basis in fact.
bazaar : marketplace, as in: The charity held a fund-raising bazaar.
bizarre : very odd, as in: Her outfit was too bizarre for the workplace.
beat : (1) strike repeatedly, as in: Percussion bands beat drums at an unbelievable tempo.
(2) defeat, as in: Your team will never beat the champions.
beet : root vegetable, as in: The common red beet can be cooked and eaten.
berry : small, pulpy fruit with many seeds, as in: I love berry pie.
bury : put in the ground and cover, as in: If we bury the treasure no one will find it.
berth : a resting place, as in: When we go on the train, which berth do you want, upper or lower'
birth : being born, as in: The birth of our first child was a happy occasion.
beside : by the side of, as in: Sit down beside the fire and get warm.
besides : moreover or else, as in: I-m not hungry; besides, I-m allergic to nuts.
among : in the midst of three or more, as in: The four older children decided among themselves to surprise Mother and Father with breakfast in bed.
between : in the midst of two, as in: The two younger ones decided between themselves to clean the kitchen.
autobiography : one-s own life story, as in: I am writing my autobiography.
bibliography : list of books about a subject, as in: Please include a bibliography with your research report.
biography : a person-s life story, as in: She is writing a biography of Marie Curie, the chemist and physicist who with her husband discovered radium in 1898.
billed : sent a statement of money owed, as in: Would you like to pay cash or be billed now'
build : construct or assemble, as in: You can build good credit by paying bills on time.
blew : sent forth a current of air, as in: The wind blew across the desert.
blue : a color, as in: The editor marked corrections with a blue pencil.
bloc : group with a shared purpose, as in: The measure was opposed by the farm bloc.
block : (1) a chunk, as in: He is going to carve an animal from that block of wood.
(2) hinder, as in: The police lined up their cars to block the bank robbers- escape.
board : (1) piece of wood, as in : The diver hit his head on the board.
(2) council, as in: I-ll make your suggestion to the board of trustees.
bored : tired of the monotony, as in: After ten speeches, I got bored, because every speaker repeated similar story.
boarder : a lodger, who receives meals regularly at a fixed price, as in: To earn extra money, we took in a boarder.
border : boundary, as in: Be sure to have your passport when you cross the border.
bolder : more daring, as in: If you want to be noticed, perhaps you need to be a little bolder.
boulder : a large rock, as in: The road was blocked by a boulder.
born : brought into existence, as in: A new nation was born out of the debris of the old one.
borne : (1) carried, as in: All their belongings were borne on their shoulders.
(2) tolerated, as in: Any more outbursts like that simply will not be borne.
boy : male child, as in: Is your new baby a boy or a girl'
buoy : a floating marker in the water, as in: When they saw the buoy, they knew they were entering the channel.
brake : device that helps you stop, as in: When the driver saw the cow in the road, he hit the brake.
break : rupture, fracture, or crack, as in: Don-t play ball in the house, because you-ll break something.
bread : food made of grain, as in: I love to eat homemade soup and fresh bread.
bred : past tense of breed, as in: Some dogs are bred for strength, some for intelligence.
breadth : width or broadness, as in: The breadth of his knowledge of world history surprised everyone.
breath : respiration, as in: Hold your breath while I take the X-ray.
breathe : inhale and exhale, as in: Breathe in that fresh air!
bridal : having to do with a marriage ceremony, as in: The bridal bouquet was made of daisies and wildflowers.
bridle : (1) having to do with horseback riding, as in: The bridle path was crowded this morning with weekend riders.
(2) restrain or control, as in: I wish I could learn to bridle my tongue.
broach : introduce, as in: While the boss was in a good mood, I decided to broach the subject of a raise.
brooch : ornamental pin, as in: She wore a beautiful diamond brooch.
bouillon : clear soup with a strong flavor, as in: For the first course I-ll have beef bouillon.
bullion : precious metals, formed into bars, as in: The coach was loaded with hundreds of bars of gold bullion.
buy : purchase, as in: More and more customers are willing to buy goods from an online storefront.
by : through the action of, as in: This Web page designed by Pro Webmaster.
bye : short form of goodbye, as in: Bye for now.
cache : hidden storage, as in: Lost in the woods, we were happy to find a cache of food belonging to some hunters.
cash : money paid at the time of purchase, as in: Will this be cash or charge'
calendar : device for showing divisions of time, as in: Mark this date on your calendar.
colander : strainer, as in: Use the colander to drain the noodles.
callous : unfeeling, as in: Drinking and driving shows a callous disregard for life.
callus : hard, thickened skin, as in: I have a callus on my finger from holding the pencil.
canvas : durable cloth made from cotton, linen, or hemp, as in: This fine painting is oil on canvas.
canvass : go around asking, as in: Canvass the neighborhood to see if anyone saw the suspect.
capital : (1) city where the seat of government of a state or country is located, as in: Washington, D. C. is the capital of the United States of America.
(2) upper case letter, as in: Writing in all capitals on the Internet is considered shouting, and is rude.
Capitol : building in which the U. S. Congress meets, as in: When I visited Washington, D. C., I toured the Capitol.
carton : lightweight container or box, as in: Please send me one carton of printer cartridges.
cartoon : drawing, often humorous, as in: Dilbert is a popular cartoon character.
casual : informal, as in: For a picnic in the park, it-s best to wear casual clothes.
causal : relating to a cause, as in: The causal forces behind many diseases have not been
discovered yet.
cease : stop, as in: If someone violates your copyright, send them a Cease and Desist letter immediately.
seize : grab, as in: The guerillas tried to seize control of the town.
siege : prolonged period of trouble or annoyance, as in: Our family has had a siege of bad colds
this year.
cede : yield, as in: At the war-s end, the loser had to cede the disputed territory to the winner.
seed : beginning of a new plant, as in: The seed of an avocado can be planted in soil or water.
ceiling : upper limit of a room, as in: A light-colored ceiling makes a room seem brighter.
sealing : closing airtight, as in: Sealing the containers is important to keep the contents fresh.
cell : small room, as in: She will spend two months in a prison cell for her mistake.
sell : offer for sale, as in: I will sell you my car for $2,000.
cellar : underground room, as in : In our house, the cellar was always damp.
seller : one who offers for sale, as in: Amazon.com is a seller of books in an online storefront.
census : population count, as in: The last census showed an increase in single-parent families.
senses : sound mental faculties, as in: Don-t call me until you have come to your senses.
cent : one-hundredth of a monetary unit, as in: In the U. S., a penny is worth one cent.
scent : odor, as in: The detective smelled the scent of almonds-could it be cyanide poisoning'
sent : past tense of send, as in: I sent you Email yesterday.
cents : plural of cent, as in: His opinion is only worth two cents.
sense : method of perception, as in: Ears provide us with the sense of hearing.
cereal : breakfast food prepared from grain, as in: My favorite cereal is Grape-Nuts;
what-s yours'
serial : arranged in a series, as in: I hope they catch that serial killer soon.
cession : act of ceding (surrendering) to another, as in: The treaty included cession of all captured territories.
session : meeting or term, as in: I will take two classes during the summer session.
chews : grinds with teeth, as in: She chews her food carefully.
choose : select, as in: There are many good programs to choose from.
chose : past tense of choose, as in: My son chose a university near home.
chic : stylishness and elegance: -Paris is the city for timeless bargain chic, in almost any category,- says an Indian tourist in her shopping guide.
chick : small chicken or bird: A chick pecks its way out of the egg online at the museum of Science and Industry in Chicago, Illinois.
chord : a combination of musical tones played simultaneously, as in: His symphony is entitled The Lost Chord.
cord : small rope, as in: Please pull the silver cord to summon the maid.
chute : slanted shaft from a higher level to a lower one, as in: The gravel came rumbling down the chute.
shoot : to discharge a weapon, as in: Don-t shoot! I-m unarmed.
cite : quote, as in: Your proposal will be more persuasive if you cite results of a recent survey.
sight : vision, as in: Our eyes provide us with one sense of sight; our imagination, another.
site : exact location, as in: Thank you for visiting my Web site. Please come back often.
cliche : overused expression, as in: A good business writer tries to avoid using a cliche.
click : make a light, sharp sound, as in: The instructions said to click on the left mouse button.
clique : small, exclusive group of people, as in: I wasn-t invited to join their clique.
climactic : having to do with the climax of something, as in: The villain falling off the cliff was the climactic scene of the movie.
climatic : having to do with climate, as in: The climatic conditions in the South Pole can be described in one word: cold!
close : shut, as in: Please close the door when you leave.
clothes : wearing apparel, as in: Wear your nicest business clothes for your interview for that job.
cloths : pieces of fabric, as in: Use the cloths under the sink for dusting.
dairy : having to do with milk and milk products, as in: Our best customer sells dairy products.
diary : daily record of events, as in: I kept a diary when the twins were tiny, to help me remember which baby I fed last.
data : facts and figures, as in: He designed a survey to collect data about visitors to his Web site.
datum : a single fact, as in: We based our measurements on the datum of the boiling point of water. (Note: rarely used outside scientific literature)
deceased : dead, as in: I am sorry to report that our hospital records show that your uncle is deceased.
diseased : seriously ill: The fact that he was poor and diseased never seemed to affect his wonderful sense of humor.
decent : in good taste, as in: Gestures considered decent in one culture may be obscene in another.
descent : going downward, as in: His descent from the airplane was much sl
show moreless


Title: Dynamic Memory Perfect Spoken English
Publisher: Diamond Books
Author: Tarun Chakarborty
Edition: Paperback
Language: English
ISBN: 8128815792
EAN: 9788128815799
No. of Pages: 152
Publish Date: 2007
Binding: Paperback


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